According to Indian Ayurved system Body Plus mind balance is equals to health. And according to the temperature of the body, its situation was understood, if the body temperature is high, then Fever used to say that slowly there were many experiments and inventions in biology such as – Blood circulation by William Harvey, antigen by landsteiner, batting by diabetes Also many branches of science were studied.
On this basis, it was recognized in biology that – Mind regulate our neural system and endocrine system it further mediates our immune system. immune system is responsible for maintenance of our health. now question arise
What is Health
Health means no disease, it’s wrong!
Health is a state of complete physical mental and social welfare. further it gives us more efficient at work results good economy, reduce Infant and maternal mortality and increase our longetivity.
According to ancient Indian Ayurveda
Balanced Diet + Personal Hygiene + Regular Exercise = YOGA
What is Disease
Malfunctioning of organ or any organ function is called disease.
There are two types of diseases Infectious and noninfectious In easy language it can be defined as
- Infectious Disease : Those disease which can easily transmitted from one person to another like common cold , AIDS etc
- Non infectious disease : Those disease which can not transmitted from one person to another like cancer.
Disease is caused by?
The organism that spreads disease is called pathogens, Under this comes bacteria bacteria protozoans helminths etc. This pathogens enter our body by various means and get multiple results morphological and functional damage to our body.
Pathogens have special power that they can adapt to environment like high temperature low PH value and other adverse environment.
What is Viruses?
Viruses are the linkage between living and non living organism. They are non living at out environment but when the enters to any host’s body they became alive.
Viruses have RNA as their genetic material, There are many groups of virus. the most common group is ‘Rhino viruses’
Rhino Viruses : What is the group of virus responsible for common cold here it is to be noted that rhinovirus infects nose and respiratory system not lungs and its common symptoms are…nasal congestion and discharge, cough, headache, tiredness and it can be transfer from one person to another as it comes in category of infectious disease.
CORONA virus also have same symptoms but the the form of virus is different coronavirus not only infects our nose and respiration system but also can enter our lungs.
Maintenance of personal and public hygiene can control many infectious disease. Some precautions we take protects us from the disease caused by viruses such as
- Consumption of clean water specially drinking water clean food, vegetables and fruits.
- Proper disposal of waste and excreta – proper cleaning and disinfection of water reservoir like tanks and pools.
- Contact with infected person or their belongings should be avoided.
What is Immunity?
Ability of organism to fight against disease is called immunity
Types of Immunity?
Tt is present at the time of birth. It includes four types of barriers which provides us easy understanding of its working.
1. Physical Barrier
Our skin and body comes in category of this barrier. They can prevent microbial entry by various means.
Mucous is another physical barrier that is found in epithelial lining of respiratory system gastrointestinal system and urogenital tracks. It is a sticky substance that help in trapping Microbes entering our body
2. Physiological Barriers
It includes acid in stomach, saliva in mouth , tears from Eyes and prevent microbial growth.
3. Cellular Barriers
Certain types of leukocytes , WBC , monocytes , lymphocytes are cellular barriers that destroy microbes in our body.
This type of immunity is not present at the time of birth but acquired during life periods. it is pathogen specific that are characterized by memory.
It can be understood by following :
When a pathogen enters to host’s body for first time then body gives response to foreign material and this response is called primary response. this response is of low intensity but when the same pathogens enters to host body for second time then body gives secondary response and it will be rapid and effective . it is due to memory of first encounter
For clearance of above paragraph we have to understand two types of cell in the body of host or human.
Human body have two special types of lymphocytes present in blood
B Lymphocytes and T lymphocytes
B lymphocytes –
Produce Army of protein in response to pathogens in blood and fight with them. this Army of protein is called ‘Antibodies’
T lymphocytes –
It helps remember B-lymphocytes to produce antibodies and pathogen as well as prevents antibodies from growing after the infection is over.
What is Antibody
Antibody includes 4 peptide chains 2 small chain are light chains and denoted by L2. 2 heavy chain are longer in size and denoted by H2.
ANTIBODY = H2L2
Types of antibodies produced in our body – IgA , IgE , IgM , IgG , IgD each of them is responsible for different actions.
Apart from the above immunity, we can divide it further into two parts
Active Immunity :
when the host is exposed to antigen which may be in the form of living or dead microbes or other , then antibodies are produces and gives primary response to this and it will be slow and take time to give effective response as secondary response. This process is used during ‘Vaccination’
Vaccination : It is based on memory of immune system. In vaccination inactivated / weakened pathogen (vaccine) is introduce into body. Then antibodies are produces and gives a primary response. but when second time the same pathogen enters into body in activated form then on based of memory B Lymphocytes and T lymphocytes produces same antibodies in less time and kill the pathogen.
Passive Immunity :
When ready made antibodies from outside given to protect the body against a foreign agent is called passive immunity. transfer of antibodies from Mother to her baby comes under this category.
Snake bite also is another example of passive immunization in this when a snake bites any person then the readymade antibody against snake venom is injected to generate quick response.
Altogether our immune system works on three stairs.
Recognise foreign antigen
Even after being infected by the virus, our body is not able to respond quickly, to understand what is the reason behind this, the nature of retrovirus can be understood.
Retrovirus This is a type of virus that is responsible for the incurable AIDS.
As we read earlier, their genetic material in viruses is RNA, it is single strained whereas DNA is found in the genetic material of human which is double standard. When the virus enters its RNA into the human CELL, it copies the DNA found in the human’s genetic material and makes its own disguise accordingly, so that T lymphocytes are not able to recognize them due to the same structure and B lymphocytes does not make antibodies against. In this way, the virus starts multiply from one to two, two to 4 and more and reduces the human’s ability to fight against diseases.
Overall, it makes the human immune system completely weak, that is why it takes 8 to 10 years for AIDS disease and by the time the disease is detected it is too late and It becomes impossible to save human beings, hence AIDS is incurable disease.
Just as the AIDS virus secretly spreads in human blood, the “corona virus” also changes its nature after arrival in the human body, which takes 14 to 15 days to recognize it, although the corona virus is from a different family. belongs
CORONA virus is a type of SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) virus that reaches lungs through human nose and respiratory channel and infects the upper layer ie epithelial cell causing blockage of respiratory tract and due to non-breathing. A human dies.
What is Herd Immunity?
It is a method of producing immunity from Vaccinated Humans (humans who have been vaccinated) in normal or Infected Humans, under which if the population of vaccinated human population is more than ordinary humans and infected humans then infected by contact with vaccinated humans. The formation of antibodies in human body is done automatically it is called Herd Immunity.